Ganoderma lucidum is actually a white-rot fungus that has been viewed as a conventional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been revealed that a number of extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, including Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, and a few bioactive aspects of ganoderma lucidum spore oil, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although using Ganoderma lucidum as being an elixir has existed for centuries, studies uncovering its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg.
Besides which, the kinds of extractions or components being comfrimed to get anti-aging are extremely few in comparison with the larger levels of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to lay the earth for fully elucidating the possibility mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect as well as its clinical application.
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst is actually a basidiomycete white rot fungus popularly known as “Ling Zhi” in China, “Rei Shi” in Japan and “Youngzhi” in Korea. The pharmacological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was attested by “Shen Nong’s Herbal Classic” around 100 BC, and observed to promote health, increase vigor and vitality in addition to prolong lifespan. The original Chinese Taoist viewed Ganoderma lucidum as being an herbal medicine which could help people to achieve the “elixir of external youth”. In China, Ganoderma lucidum has always been used as being a folk medicine for improving health insurance and is the most exalted traditional Chinese medicine.
Analysis of non-volatile ingredients in Ganoderma lucidum indicated that it has 1.8% ash, 26-28% carbohydrate, 3-5% fat, 59% fiber and 7-8% protein. The main active constituents, including polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptidoglycans, are located in the fruit body, mycelium and spore. Beseids which, there are many different extractions of Coriolus Versicolor Extract as a result of specific extracting procedures used during production as well as the part of plant it gets from. Regarding for the anti-aging and related functions of Ganoderma lucidum, the primary Ganoderma lucidum extractions are ethanol extract, aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum and also the extract from your mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum with anti-aging or anti-aging related functions meanly includes polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptides.
Aging is practically always along with a decline in bodily physiological function, leading to an elevated susceptibility to age-related disorders. It is an inevitable physiological process, however the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated after many decades. One of the numerous theories connected with aging, the oxidative stress and free radical accumulation theories stick out the most. The antioxidant system deteriorates being a purpose of age, bringing about disruption in the delicate balance between radical oxygen species production and elimination resulting in oxidative cellular damage. Post-mitotic tissues like the brain, heart and skeleton muscle are more susceptible to aging, compared with other organs.
Importantly, oxidative stress accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are important inducers of cardiac aging. Cardiac contraction is determined by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Their dysfunction may increase ROS production to an unhealthy level, thereby giving rise to structural and functional changes in the myocardium, like myocardial atrophy or compensatory hypertrophy, which induces cardiac aging . Inside the brain, the accumulation of free-radicals and attenuation of respiratory chain enzyme complex activity cause damage to cerebral mitochondria, wherein their dysfunction can induce the start of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, among others.
Besides oxidative stress, aging is additionally closely connected with bringing about structural and functional defects inside the immunity mechanism. Immunological dysfunction could be the reason for the improved susceptibility from the aged population to bacterial and virus infections, which are commonly noticed in older people.
Gradual lack of cognition is probably the main characteristics of aging, with manifestation of declining logical thinking, memory and spatial abilities. Cerebral aging is definitely the main cause of cognitive deficits and may be induced by neurodegeneration . While, on the contrary, age-associated cognitive deficits do not mean neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease, since aging brain applies a sensitive microenvironment to induce worse damage than uushdq due to diseases. The demise of neurons due to the activation of cell death programs is working in the process of age-related neurodegeneration.
Although Ganoderma lucidum has been used as being an elixir for hundreds of years, studies revealing its anti-aging effect and lifespan extension are just the tip of the iceberg. Whether Tribulus Terrestris Extract exerts an anti-aging effect remains unknown. Therefore, this review aims to put the ground for fully elucidating the possibility mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect to advertise its clinical application as an anti-aging herbal medicine.
Anti-aging and anti-aging related outcomes of Ganoderma lucidum extractions
The extractions of Ganoderma lucidum with direct lifespan elongation effects or potential anti-aging properties mainly includes the Ethanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL), Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLA), Ganoderma lucidum mycelia extract, Water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (MAK) and Ganodermasides A, B, C and D. These extracts are taken from different parts of Ganoderma lucidum.